Author: William Shakespeare
Genre: Play, Drama, Tragedy
First Written: approx 1591
Pages: 227 (Cambridge School edition with script on one page and summary on opposite page with summaries after each act)
Once again, I am relying on Sparknotes to assist me in the summary:
After a long civil war between the royal family of York and the royal family of Lancaster, England enjoys a period of peace under King Edward IV and the victorious Yorks. But Edward’s younger brother, Richard, resents Edward’s power and the happiness of those around him. Malicious, power-hungry, and bitter about his physical deformity, Richard begins to aspire secretly to the throne—and decides to kill anyone he has to in order to become king.
Using his intelligence and his skills of deception and political manipulation, Richard begins his campaign for the throne. He manipulates a noblewoman, Lady Anne, into marrying him—even though she knows that he murdered her first husband. He has his own older brother, Clarence, executed, and shifts the burden of guilt onto his sick older brother King Edward in order to accelerate Edward’s illness and death. After King Edward dies, Richard becomes lord protector of England—the figure in charge until the elder of Edward’s two sons grows up.
Next Richard kills the court noblemen who are loyal to the princes, most notably Lord Hastings, the lord chamberlain of England. He then has the boys’ relatives on their mother’s side—the powerful kinsmen of Edward’s wife, Queen Elizabeth—arrested and executed. With Elizabeth and the princes now unprotected, Richard has his political allies, particularly his right-hand man, Lord Buckingham, campaign to have Richard crowned king. Richard then imprisons the young princes in the Tower and, in his bloodiest move yet, sends hired murderers to kill both children.
By this time, Richard’s reign of terror has caused the common people of England to fear and loathe him, and he has alienated nearly all the noblemen of the court—even the power-hungry Buckingham. When rumors begin to circulate about a challenger to the throne who is gathering forces in France, noblemen defect in droves to join his forces. The challenger is the earl of Richmond, a descendant of a secondary arm of the Lancaster family, and England is ready to welcome him.
Richard, in the meantime, tries to consolidate his power. He has his wife, Queen Anne, murdered, so that he can marry young Elizabeth, the daughter of the former Queen Elizabeth and the dead King Edward. Though young Elizabeth is his niece, the alliance would secure his claim to the throne. Nevertheless, Richard has begun to lose control of events, and Queen Elizabeth manages to forestall him. Meanwhile, she secretly promises to marry young Elizabeth to Richmond.
Richmond finally invades England. The night before the battle that will decide everything, Richard has a terrible dream in which the ghosts of all the people he has murdered appear and curse him, telling him that he will die the next day. In the battle on the following morning, Richard is killed, and Richmond is crowned King Henry VII. Promising a new era of peace for England, the new king is betrothed to young Elizabeth in order to unite the warring houses of Lancaster and York. Available: http://www.sparknotes.com/shakespeare/richardiii/summary.html
Even though I read a lot of Shakespeare and I usually enjoy it, this play went completely over my head! It has a lot of characters compared to his other plays, and it is very difficult to keep track of the relationships between characters – particularly as sons are named after their fathers/grandfathers etc. making it almost impossible to understand which character was which.
I also got completely lost in the plot. Richards schemes of murder and persuasion are that complex that I couldn’t keep track of who he was murdering or why. In a similar way, I completely lost track of who was classed as a ‘goodie’ and who were ‘baddies’ as everyone appeared to be deceiving each other – and me in the process!
This definitely isn’t a play that I would recommend reading, although I would like to see it performed to see if it was easier to follow!
Favourite Quotes: CLARENCE: Oh, do not slander him, for he is kind. FIRST MURDERER: Right, as snow in harvest. (Act 1, Scene 4, Lines 230-1)
RICHARD: Say I will love her everlastingly.
ELIZABETH: But how long shall that title last?
RICHARD: Sweetly in force unto her life’s end.
ELIZABETH: But how long fairly shall her sweet life last?
RICHARD: As long as heaven and nature lengthens it.
ELIZABETH: As long as hell and Richard likes of it. (Act 4, Scene 4, Lines 353-58)